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Materials are the building blocks of society

Materials are the building blocks of society, making up the infrastructure, equipment and goods that enable people and businesses to go about their daily routines. Energy is critical to the production of materials. As the global economy and population grow, so does demand for materials, increasing the importance of understanding which technologies and strategies can support the sustainable manufacture, use and disposal of these indispensable commodities.

Key findings

Industry direct CO2 emissions in the Sustainable Development Scenario, 2000-2030


Direct industrial CO2 emissions reach almost one quarter of global emissions

Direct industrial CO2 emissions rose 0.3% to reach 8.5 Gt in 2017, or almost one quarter of global emissions. To align with the Sustainable Development Scenario, emissions must peak prior to 2025 and decline to 8.3 Gt by 2030 – despite expected industrial production growth. Increasing energy efficiency, the uptake of renewable fuels, and research and deployment of low-carbon process routes – such as CCUS and hydrogen-based production – are all critical.